1 F. J. J. Buytendijk, Allgemeine Theone der menschlichen Haltung tmd Bewegung (Berlin: Springer, 1956). Through a comparison with other species, he comes to describe man as a physiologically and psychologically self-structuring organism. For an orientation in English on the German literature in this field see H. O. Pappe, "On Philosophical Anthropology," Australasian Journal of Philosophy 39 (1961): 47-64.

   2 Adolf Portmann, Zoologie und das neue Bild des Menschen (Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1956). Man has no built-in evolutionary mechanisms that would lead him to an equilibrium; his creative availability gives to his environment (Umwelt) characteristics different from those it has for other species: it turns habitat into home.

   3 Peter Sedgwick, "Illness, Mental and Otherwise: All Illnesses Express a Social Judgment," Hastings Center Studies 1, no. 3 (1973): 19-40.

   4 Viktor von Weiszäcker, Der Gestaltkreis: Theoric der Einheit van Wahmehmm und Bewegen, 4th ed. (Stuttgart: Thieme, 1968; 1st ed. 1940).

   5 Henry E. Sigerist, A History of Medicine, vol. 1, Primitive and Archaic Medicine (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1967). Erwin H. Ackerknecht, "Primitive Medicine and Culture Patterns," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 12 (November 1942): 545-74. Sigerist states: "Culture, whether or not primitive, always has a certain configuration. . . . The medicine of a primitive tribe fits into that pattern. It is one expression of it, and cannot be fully understood if it is studied separately." Ackerknecht exemplifies this integration of culture and medicine in three tribes: the Cheyenne, Dobuan, and Thonga. For a classic description of this integration see E. E. Evans-Pritchard, Witchcraft, Oracles and Magic Among the Azande (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1937), pt. 4, 3. I argue here that health and my ability to remain responsible for my behavior in suffering are correlated. Relief from this responsibility correlates with a decline in health.

   6 It is not easy to study medical culture without a straitjacket. F. L. Dunn, "Traditional Asian Medicine and Cosmopolitan Medicine as Adaptative Systems," mimeographed, Univ. of California, n.d. Dunn indicates an important bias in most published research on medical cultures. He claims that 95% of the ethnographic (and also anthropological) literature on health-enhancing behavior and on the beliefs underlying it deals with curing and not with the maintenance and expansion of health. For literature on medical culture seen with the blinkers of the behavioral technician: Marion Pearsall, Medical Behavioral Science: A Selected Bibliography of Cultural Anthropology, Social Psychology and Sociology in Medicine (Lexington: Univ. of Kentucky Press, 1963). See also Steven Polgar, references in note 19, p. 18 above. Elfriede Grabner, Volksmedizin: Probleme und Forschungsgeschichte (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1974), provides an anthologv of critical studies on the history of ethnomedicine.

   7 On the cultural uniqueness of health: Ina-Maria Greverus, Der territoriale Mensch: Bin literaturanthropologischer Versuch zum Heimatphänomen (Frankfurt: Athe-naum, 1972). W. E. Muhlmann, "Das Problem der Umwelt beim Menschen," Zeitschrift für Morphologia und Anthropologia 44 (1952): 153-81. Arnold Gehlen, Die Stele im technischen Zeitalter, Sozialpsychologische Probleme in der industriellen Gesellschaft (Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1957). P. Berger, B. Berger, and H. Kellner, The Homeless Mind (New York: Vintage Books, 1974).

   8 Herbert Plüge, Der Mensch und sein Leib (Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1967). F. J. J. Buytendijk, Mensch und Tier (Hamburg: Rowholt, 1958). F. J. J. Buytendijk, Prolegomena to an Anthropological Physiology (Pittsburgh, Pa.: Duquesne University Press, 1974).

   9 Clifford Geertz, "The Impact of the Concept of Culture on the Concept of Man," in Yehudi A. Cohen, ed., Man in Adaptation: The Cultural Present (Chicago: Aldine, 1968).

   10 Erwin H. Ackerknecht, "Natural Diseases and Rational Treatment in Primitive Medicine," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 19 (May 1946): 467-97, is a dated but still excellent review of the literature on the functions of medical cultures. Ackerknecht provides convergent evidence that medicine plays a social role and has a holistic and Unitarian character in primitive cultures that modern medicine cannot provide.

   11 Hans Wiswe, Kulturgeschichte der Kochkunst: Kochbücher und Rezepte aus zwei Jahrtausendm (Munich: Moos, 1970). Fred Binder, Die Brotnahrung: Auswahl-Bib-liographie zu ihrer Geschichte und Bedeutung, Donau Schriftreihe no. 9 (Ulm: Deutsches Brotmuseum E.V., 1973). Ludwig Edelstein, Ancient Medicine: Selected Papers of Ludwig Edelstein, C. Lilian and Owsei Temkin, eds. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1967). See the chapter on dietetics in antiquity.

   12 Salvatore P. Lucia, Wine and the Digestive System: A Select and Annotated Bibliography (San Francisco: Fortune House, 1970).

   13Lucien Febvre, "Travail: Evolution d'un mot et d'une idée," Journal de psychologie normale et pathologique 41, no. 1 (1948); 19-28.

   14 Richard B. Onians, The Origins of European Thought About the Body, the Mind, the Soul, the World, Time and Fate (1951; reprint ed., New York: Arno, 1970). H. E. Sigerist, "Disease and Music," in Civilization and Disease (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1943), chap. 11, pp. 212 ff.

   15 Giinter Elsasser, "Ausfall des Coitus als Krankheitsursache in der Medizin des Mittelalters," in Paul Diepgen et al., eds., Abhandlung zur Geschichte der Medizin und der Natunuissenschafien, no. 3 (Berlin, 1934). Robert H. van Gulik, Sexual Life in Ancient China (Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Humanities Press, 1961).

   16 Werner Jaeger, Paideia: The Ideals of Greek Culture (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1943), vol. 3, chap. 1, "Greek Medicine as Paideia," pp. 3-45.

   17 Edward N. Gardiner, Athletics of the Ancient World (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1930). M. Michler, "Das Problem der westgriechischen Heilkunde," Sudhoffs A rchiv 46 (1962): 141 ff.

   18 Fridolf Kudlien, "Stimmübungen als Therapeutikum in der antiken Medizin," Ärztliche Mitteilungen 44 (1963): 2257-8; for a digest of this article see L. Heyer-Grote, Atemschulung als Element der Psychotherapie (Darmstadt: Wissen-schaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1970). Johanna Schmidt, "Phonaskoi," in Pauly-Wissowa, Real-Encyklopädie (1941), 20, pt. 1:522-6.

   19 A. W. Gubser, "Ist der Mittagsschlaf schädlich?" Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift 97, no. 7 (1967): 213-16. Jane Belo, Trance in Bait, preface by Margaret Mead (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1960). Kilton Steward, "Dream Theory in Malaya," Complex: The Magazine of Psychoanalysis and Related Matters 6 (1951): 21-33.

   20 Ibn Khaldun, The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History, trans. Franz Rosenthal, Bollingen Series XLIII, 3 vols. (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Press, 1967). Writing towards the end of the 15th century Ibn Khaldun observed the conflict between the craft of medicine required by sedentary culture and its luxury and Bedouin medicine, which was based mainly upon tradition and individual experience. See especially 2:373-7 and 3:149-51.

   21 F. N. L. Poynter, ed., Medicine and Culture, Proceedings of a Historical Symposium Organized Jointly by the Wellcome Institute of the History of Medicine, London, and the Wenner-Gren Foundations for Anthropological Research, N.Y. (London: Wellcome Institute, 1969). See for the conflict between metropolitan medicine and various traditions. On the use of one hospital to create the new category of "mental disease" in Senegal, see Danielle Storper-Perez, La Folie colonisée: Textes à I'appui (Paris: Maspero, 1974).

   22 The Western idea that health in the abstract is a property of man could not develop except parallel to the idea of mankind. Carlyle suggests that both ideas first took recognizable form in the toast of the victorious Alexander to the homo-ousia (like-naturedness) of men. Combined with the idea of progress, the Utopia of healthy mankind came to prevail over the ideal of concrete and specific patterns of functioning characteristic for each tribe or polis. On this see H. C. Baldry, The Unity of Mankind in Greek Thought (Cambridge: University Press, 1965), and Max Muehl, Die antike Menschheitsidee in ihrer geschichtlichm Entwicklung (Leipzig: Dietrichsche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1928). Sidney Pollard, The Idea of Progress: History and Society (New York: Basic Books, 1968), deals with the ideology of human progress in relation to concrete history and the politico-economic aspects complementing philosophy.

   23 To study this clash in Latin American history, see, on ethnomedicine, Erwin H. Ackerknecht, "Medical Practices," in Julian Haynes Steward, Handbook of South American Indians, vol. 5, The Comparative Ethnology of South American Indians (1949; reprint ed., Saint Clair Shores, Mich.: Scholarly Press, 1973), pp. 625-43. On medical colonization, see Percy M. Ashburn, The Ranks of Death: A Medical History of the Conquest of America (New York: Coward-McCann, 1947). An important work, throwing light on the history of medicine and on the conquest. Francisco Guerra, Historiografía de la medicina colonial hispano-americana (Mexico: Abastecedora de impresos, 1953), is more bibiographical than historiographical, but indispensable. No comprehensive study of the imperialism of European medical ideology in Latin America is available. For a first orientation, see Gonzalo Aguirre Beltran, Medicina y magia: El proceso de aculturación en la estructura colonial (Mexico: Institute Nacional Indigenista, 1963).