Plate 30



   Almost any earths, with the exception of extremely hard rock, can be transformed into fertile soil in a very short space of time. The best association of the factors of moisture, warmth and air rapidly break down these materials, allowing soil to form.

   Upper left shows the condition of large areas of "Nevallan", which had lost the soil and subsoil with shale showing on the surface.

   Upper right: The development of soil which took place in three years from the material seen as on the upturned tree roots. The agency of the improvement was again the better association of moisture, warmth and air in the soil. Earthworms commenced to multiply rapidly after the end of the second year of Keyline on "Nevallan".

   Lower left: The new landscape, on the worst soileroded area of any of our properties, is founded on the improving soil.