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FIG. 6. Above: bothers, Isle of Harris. The younger at left uses modern food and has rampant tooth decay. Brother at right uses native food and has excellent teeth. Note narrow face and arch of younger brother. Below: typical rampant tooth decay, modernized Gaelic. Right: typical excellent teeth of primitive Gaelic.
FIG. 7. Above: typical rugged Gaelic children,
Isle of Harris, living on oats and sea food. Note the breadth
of the faces and nostrils. Below: typical modernized Gaelics,
Isle of Bardsey. Note narrowed faces and nostrils.
One important phase of modern degeneration, namely, change in facial and dental arch form and other physical expressions, is of interest. It is a matter of great significance that the Eskimos who are living in isolated districts and on native foods have produced uniformly broad dental arches and typical Eskimo facial patterns. Even the first generation forsaking that diet and using the modern diet, presents large numbers of individuals with marked changes in facial and dental arch form. In Fig. 12 will be seen four Eskimo girls who are of the first generation following the adoption of modernized foods by their parents. All have deformed dental arches. It is important to note the pattern of the settling inward of the lateral incisors and the crowding outward of the cuspids. This facial design is currently assigned to a mixing of racial bloods. These girls are pure-blooded Eskimos whose parents have normally formed dental arches.
We are particularly concerned with the foods used by these primitive Eskimos. They almost always have their homes on or near deep water. Their skill in handling their kayaks is most remarkable. During the salmon running season they store large quantities of dried salmon. They spear many of these fish from their kayaks; even young boys are very skillful. They land salmon so large that they can hardly lift them. They are expert in spearing seals from these light crafts. Seal oil provides a very important part of their nutrition. As each piece of fish is broken off, it is dipped in seal oil. I obtained some seal oil from them and brought it to my laboratory for analyzing for its vitamin content. It proved to be one of the richest foods in vitamin A that I have found.
The fish are hung on racks in the wind for drying. Fish eggs are also spread out to dry, as shown in Fig. 13. These foods constitute a very important part of the nutrition of the small children after they are weaned. Naturally, the drifting sands of the bleak Bering Straits lodge upon and cling to the moist surfaces of the fish that are hung up to dry. This constitutes the principal cause for the excessive wear of the Eskimos' teeth in both men and women.
The food of these Eskimos in their native state includes caribou, ground nuts which are gathered by mice and stored in caches, kelp which is gathered in season and stored for winter use, berries including cranberries which are preserved by freezing, blossoms of flowers preserved in seal oil, sorrel grass preserved in seal oil, and quantities of frozen fish. Another important food factor consists of the organs of the large animals of the sea, including certain layers of the skin of one of the species of whale, which has been found to be very high in vitamin C.
FIG. 9. Typical native Alaskan Eskimos. Note the
broad faces and broad arches and no dental caries (tooth decay).
Upper left, woman has a broken lower tooth. She has had twenty-six
children with no tooth decay.
FIG. 12. While dental arch deformities or crowded
teeth are practicallly unknown among many of the primitive groups
of Eskimos, they occur frequently in the first generation of children
born after the parents have adopted the white man's foods. Note
the narrow nostrils and changed facial form of these children.
This is not due to thumb sucking.
FIG. 17. Wherever the Indians were living on their
native foods, chiefly moose and caribou meat, their physical development
including facial and dental arch form was superb with nearlyl
complete immunity to dental caries. These two women and two girls
FIG. 19. The blight of the white man's commerce
is seen everywhere in the distorted countenances of even the first
generation after the adpotion by the parents of the foods of modern
commerce. These young people with their deformed dental arches
are typical. Note the faulty development of the facial bones as
evidenced by the narrow nostrils and crowded teeth.
"There has been a very extensive development of sugar plantations on the larger islands of several of the Pacific archipelagos. The working of these plantations has required the importation of large numbers of indentured laborers. These have been brought chiefly from India and China. Since they are nearly all men, those who have married have obtained their wives from among the natives. This, the Chinese have done quite frequently. Since they are excellent workers they provide good homes and are good business men. They are, in many districts, rapidly becoming the landowners and are men of influence. This influx of Asiatics, together with that of Europeans, has had an important influence upon the purity of the native race around the ports and provided an opportunity to study the effect of intermingling of races upon the susceptibility to dental caries. No differences in extent of tooth decay due to ancestry were disclosed. The incidence of dental caries at the points of contact with imported foods was 30.1 per cent of teeth examined as compared with 0.42 for the more isolated groups living on the native foods of land and sea.
"The physical changes which were found associated with the use of the imported foods included the loss of immunity to dental caries in practically all of the individuals who had displaced their native foods very largely with the modern foods. Dental caries was much worse, however, in the growing children and motherhood group due to the special demands of these individuals. These conditions are illustrated in Figs. 31 and 32. The boy shown in Fig. 32 (upper, left) typifies the suffering brought by modernization. Abscessed teeth often cause suicide.
"Another important phase of the studies included a critical examination of the facial form and shape of the dental arches which include very definite and typical changes represented by the narrowing of the features and the lengthening of the face with crowding of the teeth in the arch. These are illustrated in the lower half of Fig. 32.
"The members of the Melanesian race living on the Fiji Islands of the Pacific, whether volcanic or coral in origin, have developed a very high immunity to dental caries and well formed faces and dental arches. Their native foods consisted of animal life from the sea eaten with plants and fruits from the land in accordance with a definite program of food selection. In their primitive state only 0.42 per cent of their teeth were attacked by tooth decay. In the modernized groups this incidence increased to 30.1 per cent. The change in the nutrition included a marked reduction in the native foods and their displacement with white-flour products, sugar and sweetened goods, canned foods and polished rice. In the succeeding generations after the parents had adopted the modern foods, there occurred distinct change in facial form and shape of the dental arches."
FIG. 29. [Fijians] The development of the facial
bones determines the size and shape of the palate and the size
of the nasal passages. Note the strength of the neck of the men
above and the well-proportioned faces of the girls below. Such
faces are usually associated with properly proportioned bodies.
Tooth decay is rare in these mouths so long as they use an adequate
selection of native foods.
FIG. 31. These natives of the Fiji Islands illustrate
the effect of changing from the native food to the imported foods
of commerce. Tooth decay becomes rampant and with it is lost the
ability to properly masticate the food. Growing children and child
bearing mothers sufer most severely from dental caries.
FIG. 36. Note the marked difference in facial
and dental arch form of the two Samoan primitives above and the
two modernized below. The face bones are undeveloped below causing
a marked constriction of the arches with crowding of the teeth.
This is a typical expression of inadequate nutrition of the parents.