HOME PAGE    HEALTHLIBRARY CATALOG
Front Matter

Introduction
I Disease--Two Views
II The Slaughter of The Innocents
III Prenatal Care
IV Babies Should be Born in the Spring
V Baby's Growth and Development


VI The Child's Teeth
VII Teething
VIII Fat Babies
IX Mother's Milk
X Should Baby be Weaned
XI Three Year Nursing Period
XII Cows Milk
XIII Pasteurization
XIV Three Feedings a Day
XV No Starch for Infants
XVI "ReguIar" Crimes in Feeding
XVII Feeding of Infants
XVIII Baby's General Care
XIX Feeding Children from two to six years
XX A Healthy Child


XXI Undernutrition
XXII The Acute "Infectious" Diseases of Childhood

XXIII Skin Disorders
XXIV Common Disorders of Infants and Children

XXV Child Education
XXVI Corporal Punishment
XVII Vaccinia


XXVIII Serum Poisoning
XXIX Commercial Medicine







CHAPTER XV
NO STARCH FOR INFANTS

    Dr. Prospiro Sonsino, el Pisa, provedyears ago, by a number of experiments, that there is a "physiological or normaldyspepsia to starchy food (absolute inability to digest) in the first portion ofinfant life." Certain it is that, since starch of all foods, requires thoroughand complete mastication and insalivation, it should not be fed to infants beforethey have their teeth. This view was supported by Dr. Routh, professors Huxley, Youmans,Dalton, and perhaps by all who ever examined the subject.

    Dr. Page was particularly bitter againstthe practice of feeding starches to infants. "Farina, corn-starch, fine flour,and refined sugar," he declared, "are the fashionable materials for theinfant dietary; but a worse selection could hardly be made." He cautioned againstthe injury to the vital organs resulting from "prematurely feeding the infanton even the best selected articles of the general table," and added: "Itis not uncommon for infants to be given cakes and candies, and even pork, fried fish,cabbage, ham, potatoes, etc., while the teeth are blamed for the ensuing gastro-intestinaldisorders."

    It will not do to feed mashed potatoes,corn meal, mush, farina, and the like to toothless infants, and imagine that becausethese things can be swallowed without chewing, the problem is solved. They are alsoswallowed without being insalivated and are eaten by one whose digestive juices areill adapted to starch digestion.

    The fact that Nature makes no provisionsfor the digestion of starches before full dentition, should be sufficient evidencethat she does not intend it to form any part of the infant's diet. Before the teethare fully developed the saliva of the infant contains a mere trace of ptyalin, thedigestive ferment or enzyme that converts starch into sugar. There is just enoughof this ptyalin present in the saliva to convert sugar into primary dextrose. Itis this almost total absence of starch-splitting enzymes from the digestive juicesof the infant that accounts for the great amount of digestive disorders which resultfrom feeding starch foods to infants. When starch digestion is impossible, starchfermentation is inevitable. This poisons the baby.

    If we limit the following remarks ofPage's to the milk from a healthy well nourished mother, he is eternally right. Hesays: "Milk is the food for babies and contains all of the elements necessaryto make teeth, and until they are made, it should continue to be the sole food. Itis not enough that two or three or a half dozen teeth have come through, that theyshould be expected to do any part of a grown child's work."

    Dr. Densmore, who did not favor starches,even for adults, says of them for infants (How Nature Cures, P. 55), a dietof cereal or grain and all starch foods: "is especially unfavorable for children,and more especially for babies. The intestinal ferments which are required for thedigestion of starch foods are not secreted until the baby is about a year old; andthese ferments are not as vigorous for some years as in adults. All starch foodsdepend upon these intestinal ferments for digestion, whereas dates, figs, prunes,erc., are equally as nourishing as bread and cereals, and are easily digested—thelarger proportion of the nourishment from such fruits being ready for absorptionand assimilation as soon as eaten."

    Dr. Tilden is equally as strong forwhat he calls the no-starch-for-babies plan. He says:--"It is a mistake to feedstarch foods too soon--before the end of the second year; for young children cannottake care of too much starch." "Children under two or three years of agehave trouble in converting starch into sugar. They should get their sugar from fruits:fresh fruit in summer, and the dry, sweet fruits in the winter--raisins, dates andfigs."

    In my own practice I make it a pointnever to prescribe starch food of any kind for babies under two years of age. Inmy own family I have never fed my children cereals. The cereals are the most difficultof all starches, unless it is beans and peas, to digest. There are strong reasonsto think that cereals cause the production of poor bones and teeth.

    Babies do not need starch foods andcannot utilize them to any advantage. Much of the troubles from which children sufferare due to the practice of feeding them starch. Cereals with sugar and cream or sugarand milk are especially bad--the cereals and sugar are usually denatured and themilk is pasteurized, to add to the evils.

    "Upon no consideration,"says Dr. Page, "should any of the farinaceous or starchy articles be added untilthe mouth bristles with teeth; then it may be justly considered that he can handlesomething of the adult diet."

    Macaroni is a "slippy, glutinousmass of starchy acid which is never chewed, and equally of course is never digested,"and should never be eaten by child or adult.

    Cakes and cookies, breads and pastries,jellies, jams, custards and the like should never be fed to children or eaten bygrown ups.

    If cereals are fed to children onlythe whole-grain cereals should be given. It is a crime to feed denatured cerealsto children. Doctors who advise them are either ignorant incompetents, or else knaveswho have their eyes on the money they derive out of the sicknesses caused by these.

    All starches should be served dry,to insure thorough chewing and insalivation. They should be taken with green vegetables,raw or cooked, but never with acid fruits, proteins or milk. Jellies, jams, etc.,should not be fed with them. Cream and sugar should never be served on cereals. Rawstarches are easier to digest than cooked starches and require more chewing; thisprobably accounting for a part of their greater ease of digestion

    

    
CHAPTER XVI
"REGULAR CRIMES IN FEEDING

    Infant feeding, as at present practiced,is a crime and it will someday be recognized as such. Anyone who will take the troubleto read through the confusion on infant feeding, in books upon pediatry, will soonrealize that specialists in the care of infants do not have the slightest comprehensionof the requirements of a natural diet. They almost wholly ignore many physiologicalfacts, and stubbornly refuse to conform to others. It may truthfully be said of them,as of the average parent, that they are better fitted for feeding hogs than for feedingchildren.

    The feeding method in vogue is a hitand miss system. It is a case of "try this" and "try that" andthen try something else. The mother, the nurse and the physician chase "frompillar to post" and tax themselves to the uttermost, in a vain effort to finda suitable food. Dr. Tilden says, of his efforts with this kind of a system, withwhich, he says he was as successful as that of other physicians of the guessing schools,"when the guess hit it hit, and when it missed it missed, and I knew the reasonfor the one just as well as I knew the reason for the other."

    It would really be amusing, were itnot so tragic, to watch the jumping from food to food that occurs under present feedingmethods. A food is tried and continued so long as the child appears to do well; butif the child develops a diarrhea or an "upset" stomach, a change is made;another food is tried. This process goes on until all the known foods, and many drugs,have been tried out. The little victims of this guessing and abuse, who are fortunateenough to live in spite of such handicaps, finally arrive at the period when theyare taken off the baby foods and then the death rate is lowered. Credit for the child'ssalvation is attributed to the baby food that chanced to be used last.

    This infantile abuse precedes froma number of sources, not the least of which is ignorance. Parents and physiciansare afraid of natural foods. Everything must be cooked and sterilized changed anddrugged before it is fit for use by the baby. One listens to their grave warningsabout the dangers of natural foods and wonders how man, who was "made upright"ever managed to survive the long period that elapsed before he "sought out manyinventions."

    Here are some of the drugs with whichthey habitually dope the hand-fed baby's milk: milk-sugar, cane-sugar, maltose, lime-water,cereal-diluents, bicarbonate of soda, citrate of soda, pepsin and milk abumen.

    There are a lot of proprietary babyfoods on the market also, such as condensed milks, malted foods, sugar and starchfoods, dry milk, and the like.

    These foods are poured into childrenuntil they develop stomach trouble or diarrhea and then constipation, and then thechildren are drugged with castor oil, milk of magnesia, paregoric, etc., until neithertheir stomachs nor bowels are capable of normal function.

    Whether breast-fed or fed unnaturally,the stuffing process is the vogue. The wonder is not that so many children suffer,but that as many pull through, in spite of such abuse, as do.

    The medical feeding of infants callsfor weaning at the age of nine to ten months. They are supposed to begin having wholecow's milk, with or without the addition of one of the cereal waters, before thisage. At about nine months, and sometimes, much earlier, cereals are added to thechild's diet. Salt is usually added to this. At about this time, beef juice and beefbroths are given. These things are fed at the same meal with the milk, a dieteticsin that the child pays for.

    At ten or eleven months bread crumbsor zwieback are added to the beef and a little later boiled (polished) rice and plain,boiled macaroni (a thoroughly denatured food) are fed to the child. Zwieback, stalebread (white), "plain white crackers" are given "in its hand"to eat at this time. Baked apple and apple sauce are also given.

    Then we come to the second year. Morse-Wyman-Hillsay: "the beginning of the second year the baby will usually be taking fivefeedings at three hour intervals or four feedings at four hour intervals." Theyalso say:--"During the first half of the second year the breakfast should consistof milk, cereal, and bread toast zwieback, or cracker. The orange juice is usuallygiven about an hour before lunch. The dinner consists of broth or beef juice, withbread, zwieback, rice or macaroni. It may have milk or a plain desert, such as junket,plain blanc mange, cornstarch pudding, prune juice, baked apple, or apple sauce.It's supper is the same as breakfast, except that, if it is constipated (and it willbe, if it doesn't have diarrhea. H. M. S.), and needs prune juice, baked apple, orapple sauce, they may be given with the supper instead of the dinner. The bread maybe given in the form of milk-toast, that is, toast bread soaked in hot milk withoutthickening."

    The parent, nurse or doctor never livedwho could produce a healthy, well-developed child on such an unholy abomination fora diet. What wonder that they say "have your doctor and your dentist to examinethe child frequently."

    These authorities then take up thelast half of the childs second year and say:--"When the boy is a year and ahalf old baked potato and sofa-boiled or coddled eggs may be added to the diet. Theyshould both be given at dinner. (These two foods should never be fed at the samemeal. H. M. S.). If the egg does not disturb it, it may have baked custard as anotherdessert, but never on the same day that it has a boiled or coddled egg. Butter maybe begun at about the same time. Further additions to the desserts are plan tapiocaand apple tapioca."

    Other cereals are also added to thecereal list at this time. Induding an orange juice feeding at 10 a. m., their schedulecalls for six feedings a day at eighteen months--six feedings of the abominable messmentioned above and a quart of milk.

    They caution against feeding greenvegetables before the child is two years old.

    At the age of two years they add meatsto the child's diet cautioning, only, against fried fats, which are indigestible,pork, and twice-cooked meats--"A fundamental principle in feeding is that foodsthat are cooked over are much less digestible than foods that have been cooked butonce."

    At two and a quarter to two and a halfyears, they add green vegetables--spinach, string beans, asparagus, peas, cookedcelery. Peas and spinach should always and string beans should usually be put througha sieve, they say. "Canned asparagus is usually somewhat indigestible."

    Fish and other meats are added to thechild's diet during the third year; carrots and squash may also be begun at thistime. "Cabbage and cauliflour are very easily digested if they are not servedwith a cream sauce. Cabbage should never be given raw. We do not approve of tomatoes,beets and corn for children."

    Then comes the astounding part of thisinsane advise about feeding children. I presume that after reading the above thereader should be prepared for almost anything, however. They say:

    "Pears and peaches may be given cooked at three or four years. In general it is not advisable to give them uncooked before the child is five years old. #### The pulp of the orange may be given at four years. We do not think that grapefruit should be given to young children."

    They cast doubts on bananas, then say "theyare rather more digestible when baked, and, of course, when taken raw, should bescraped or cut into fine pieces"--to train the child to swallow its food withoutchewing it, I suppose.

    But let us go on: "We do not believein giving raw apples to children, at any rate, before they are six years old. Rawapples are indigestible for many children, as well as adults, even when they arescraped (But not when they are chewed. H.M.S.) The old saying that 'an apple a daykeeps the doctor away' has been a great boon for those physicians who specializein diseases of children." "Uncooked berries should not be given to childrenbefore they are six years old. Cooked strawberries and blueberries may, however,be given cautiously after children are four years old. Melons are not a suitableform of food for young children; nor are nuts."

    After expressing all this fear of thebest foods in the world for children--fruits, berries, melons, nuts; and these raw--theytell us that the list of desserts may be increased during the third year to includeprune whip, simple gelatins, bread and rice puddings, baked custard--plain cookiesare added after the fourth birthday, as is, also vanilla ice cream.

    Nor do these complete this catalogueof crimes against the health of the child. For, as a climax, to all of this stupidity,they say: "Whole wheat bread has but very little, if any, more nutritive valuethan bread made from white flour. ### The same is true of brown and polished rice."

    I write this book for intelligent people,and not for those who foolishly follow such advice as the above. Yet, bad as it is,it is not as bad as the advise many doctors give on infant feeding. I have selectedas a prize exhibit in dietetic insanity, the dietary of leaders in the profession,not that of the small-fry. The deplorable results of such feeding speak for themselves.The fallacies in this diet will be made apparent as we proceed.

    

    
CHAPTER XVII
FEEDING OF INFANTS

    We have heard many reputable physicianssay that infant feeding is the hardest problem with which they have to deal. Thisdespite the fact that about all the time spent in Medical Colleges, in the studyof diet, is devoted to infant feeding.

    Every old grandmother knows all thereis to be known about the care and feeding of infants. She may have given birth toten children and half of these may have succeeded in reaching maturity but this terribledeath rate does not convince her that her pet superstitions about infant care arenot "law and gospel." The fact is these people usually know about as littleabout caring for a baby properly as the physician does.

    When we see or even think of the manysenseless abuses to which many thousands of babies are forced to submit we do notwonder that the death rate among infants is so terribly high. A great part of theseare actually killed--murdered. Many mothers feed their children so much and so oftenthat the baby is in a constant state of discomfort or actual suffering. Every timeit cries from this cause it is fed again. One soon comes to believe that babies areincapable of crying except when hungry. As the crying continues some soothing syrup,which invariably contains opium in some form, is given. Very often an alcoholic isadministered and in many other ways baby is drugged.

    Then there is a widespread superstitionthat if a mother allows the baby to "taste" some of each food she eats,her milk will not give baby the colic. We have seen many mothers begin feeding theirbabies in this way by the time they were a few weeks old and long before they werereally capable of properly caring for such foods they were eating, corn, oatmeal,beans, meat, eggs, etc. Such crimes against infants would be tolerated by no stockraiser towards his young animals. He knows only too well that the consequences tothe animals would be disastrous.

    Dr. Tilden says: "if we ever geton to a rational plan of eating, children up to two years of age will be fed on anexclusive milk diet, with orange or other fruit or vegetable juices."

    Certain it is that nature did not intendthe baby to chew food until its teeth are sufficiently developed to perform thisfunction. Since they reach this stage of development at from twenty to twenty-fourmonths after birth, there seems to be no earlier need for "solid" foods.If earlier need for such foods exist why does nature not supply the needed chewingequipment at an earlier period?

    The natural indications are for anexclusive milk diet for the first two years. We add fruit juices, not because thereis any need for them in nature's scheme of things, but because in our unnatural life,we do not supply them with milk of proper quality. Soft fruits may be used beforethe teeth are fully developed, but only after they are sufficiently developed toenable the child to mash these up well.

    Eminent medical authorities and childspecialists write voluminously upon the feeding of infants and they go contrary toall of this; but if their advice is good, why the prevailing frightful infant mortality?Why the terrible amount of sickness and suffering in infants and children? Why thedeformity and defects among our children? "By their fruits ye shall know them."

    Investigations made in Boston a fewyears ago, showed that a breast-fed baby has six times the chance of living throughthe first year as a bottle-fed baby. Elsewhere I have shown the great percentageof infant deaths from gastro-intestinal disorders.. Less than ten percent of thecases of death from "diarrheal causes" occur in breast-fed babies, whileninety percent of all infantile deaths are in the bottle-fed babies.

    Breast-fed babies have a better startin life. This can be given them by no other means. As a class they are more vigorousand healthy and are more resistent to disease than bottle-fed babies. They developinto better and stronger children.

    If Nature has prepared milk for theyoung animal, it is quite obvious that milk is its natural diet, during the periodin which it is provided. The fact that shows clearly and convincingly the splendidfood value of milk is that during the period of most rapid growth, in the lives ofmammals, milk is the sole food. So efficient is it as a food that a baby ordinarilywill double its weight in 180 days with no other article of food. A calf or coltwill double its weight in sixty days and a pig in ten to fifteen days on milk alone.It is equally apparent that the milk of the species to which any young animal belongsis the one best adapted to it. That this is very true in the case of human infantsis amply demonstrated by the following facts.

    Statistics complied by the Child HygieneAssociation of Philadelphia covering 3,243,958 infants who died during their firscyear of life showed 50 out of every 100 bottle fed died during the first year oflife, as compared to but seven deaths during their first year out of every one hundredbreast-fed babies.

    This fact caused one eminent womanspecialist to write the following: "The first and most important duty of motherhoodis the breast-feeding of her baby. Next to the right of every child to be well borncomes the right to his best food, his own mother's breast milk. Mother's milk isthe only perfect infant food; it cannot be imitated; and anyone who advises a motherdifferently is guilty of a serious crime against a helpless baby. When a baby isdenied his mother's milk and put upon a bottle he loses half his chance to be keptalive, and nine-tenths of his chances to grow up into a normal healthy man or woman."

    Statistics show that only two breast-fedbabies contract the so-called contagious diseases where five bottle-fed babies doso, and that where such diseases are contracted the chances for recovery are greatlyincreased in the breast-fed baby as compared to the chances of the bottle-fed ones.Adenoids and enlarged tonsils are also more common among bottle-fed than among breastfed babies.

    Perhaps I am wrong, but I am inclinedto believe that a profession that knows the relation of cows milk to tonsillar andadenoid troubles, and which makes large sums of money out of its ruthless slaughterof these organs, knows what it is doing when it urges great milk consumption by allchildren and even by adults. They know that the more milk one consumes the more tonsillarand adenoid troubles he is likely to have. There is so much commercialism in themedical profession that I think it it capable of almost anything.

    American and English mothers are fastlosing the capacity to nurse their babies. Investigations have shown that only 12per cent of American babies are entirely breast-fed, while 28 per cent are absolutelybottle-fed and the residue from both breast and bottle but many of these insufficientlyfrom the breast. These young citizens get a bad start in life and the results showup very plainly when the call for men comes, as in the recent war. Less than fiftyper cent of the young men of this nation were found physically fit. In New Zealand,where breast feeding is the rule, the infant death rate is only half of that in America.This in slgnitlcant and should lead mothers to a more wholesome mode of living toenable them to suckle their own children.

    Breast feeding is nature's own methodand there is none equally as good. No other method can assure your baby the healthand strength that breast feeding will. Breast-fed babies have less disease than bottle-fedones, while ten bottle-fed babies die to one fed on breast milk. Bowel troubles,often fatal to infants in the summer, are comparatively rare in breast-fed infants.Breast milk requires no fixing. It is always ready and never sour. It is free fromdirt and all contamination from without. It does not have to be measured and prepared.It does not undergo deterioration like cow's milk. It is given fresh and warm andflows directly from the producer to the consumer, as nature intended.

    Aside from their frequent failure tosuckle their young, civilized mothers do better after the baby comes, while savagemothers do better up to the time of birth. After that ignorance and lack of sanitationamong savages work for a high mortality.

    If civilized mothers will learn todo as well or better before baby comes as the savage mother does, and learn to suckleher child as well as the savage mothers this, coupled with her tremendous sanitaryand hygienic advantages and greater knowledge, will enable her to reduce the infantdeath rate to but a small per cent of what it now is. It goes without saying thatthey should learn to care for baby in every way.

    I have little faith, however, in theliklihood of the modern woman ever returning to her primitive vigor and strength.She is not possessed of the desire to do so, nor of the necessary self control toavoid the evils and abuses that have brought about her present condition. Give toa woman a popular cook book and a rational work on diet and she will almost invariablyemploy the cook book and let the work on diet rust. Teach her the value of exerciseand she will ride the cars with her dog. Paint, powder and the dressmaker's art willpass for the appearance of health. Even our atheletic girls, of whom we read andsee so much today, are semi-invalids. They have not learned how to live and theywill not learn how. Of course, their male acquaintances are not one bit better inthese respects. Women can have normal childbirths and supply their children withmilk when they learn to live normally. Until then, they will have to depend on artificialfoods and that abomination of infant life--calf food.

    The chief cause of digestive disordersin infants and of all those other complaints that grow out of these is overfeeding.The habit of feeding babies every two hours during the day and every time it wakesup and cries at night is a ruinous one. Such feeding over works the baby's digestiveorgans and introduces an excess of food into the alimentary track to ferment andpoison the child. It weakens and sickens the child producing diarrhea, colic, skineruptions, and more serious disorders.

    Feeding the baby at night preventsboth mother and child from sleeping and teaches the child irregularity in sleep.When the mother's sleep is disturbed in this way, she is weakened and normal secretionsare interfered with, resulting in an impairment of her milk. The impairment of themilk reacts unfavorably upon the child. Feeding at night is not only unnecessary,it overfeeds and sickens the child.

    This method of feeding, which is alsothe popular one, is what really makes the problem of infant feeding a difficult one.There is no way to adapt even the most wholesome and easily digested food to an infantwhen it is fed in such quantities. With proper feeding it is but little trouble tofind a food that will "agree" with the baby.

    Real hunger seldom appears for twoor three days after birth as is evidenced by the fact that the baby will be satisfiedby a water diet. During this period nature does not provide real milk, but a secretion,called colostrum, which probably serves several needs of the child and doesnot behave merely as a laxative, as it is usually supposed to do.

    We hear of a so-called "inanitionfever" that is supposed to develop in rare cases during this period, when itbecomes necessary to feed the baby artificially. This is a medical fallacy and neednot be considered here.

    Some ignorant and ill-advised nursesand mothers, thinking it necessary to feed the baby during this period, when naturehas not supplied food, give it cows milk or sugar in water, or other "food."This is a needless and pernicious practice. The baby need not be put to the breastduring the first twenty-four hours after birth.

    Three to four feedings in twenty-fourhours is enough for any baby. No feeding should be done at night. Babies fed in thisway develop faster than those stuffed in the old way. Over nutrition actually inhibitsfunction and retards growth and development. No feeding should ever be done betweenmeals. Every time a child cries it is not hungry.

    An infant is nourished in proportionto its power to digest and assimilate the food supplied to it, and not in proportionto the quantity of nutrition it may be induced to swallow. Not the large quantityswallowed, but the right quantity perfectly digested and perfectly assimilated cansecure best results with infants as well as children and adults.

    In spite of the obviousness of thisprinciple, it is almost an article of faith with many parents, nurses and doctors,a dogma so firmly fixed in their minds that they cannot be persuaded to the contrary,that the infant that is fed most thrives best. If the infant is losing weight italways suggests the need for a larger supply of food while every cry means hungerand must be silenced with more food.

    The cat, dog, cow, hog and, indeed,all other animals, do not permit their young to suck as often nor as long as theydesire. The cat will often absent herself from her kittens for as long as six hours,while I have seen dogs deliberately get up from their resting places when their puppiesattempted to nurse, and run away from them. On the plane of instinct there is nosuch folly as the stuff-them-to-kill-them practice, and the animals are more successfulthan we.

    All around us are healthy-born childrenwho are "starving to death under the eyes of parents who would pay adollar a drop for food to restore them." Many of these children are surroundedwith every requirement for a healthful life except one--namely, "the knowledgeon the part of the attendants of the fact that the Creator did not design that ababy's stomach should be treated like a toy balloon!" They are famishing fromtoo much feasting.

    What is the great secret of successin feeding babies? Dr. Tilden well expresses it thus: "FIT CHILDREN TO THE FOODAND NEVER ATTEMPT TO FIT THE FOOD TO THE CHILDREN." How? Easy! Watch these fewsimple rules:

    1. Feed the child natural, that is,uncooked, unprocessed, unsterilized, unadulterated, undrugged, foods.

    2. Do not stuff the child. Feed itthree moderate meals a day.

    3. Feed simple meals. Do not feed foodsthat are mixed in such a way as to cause fermentation.

    4. Do not feed between meals, nor atnight.

    5. If the child is upset, or feelsbad, or is excited or tired, or over heated, or chilled, or in pain or distress,or is sick, DON'T FEED IT. IF THERE IS FEVER, GIVE NO FOOD.

    No other food except milk or milk andfruit juices should be given the child for the first two years of its life. At abouteighteen months of age soft fruits may be added to the diet. These should form oneor part of one meal a day. If four feedings have been indulged in up to this timeone of these should now be stopped

    No starchy foods or cereals shouldbe given under two years. Artificial sweets--candies, cakes, pies, sugar, etc.,--shouldnever be fed to children.

    The child should be taught early tothoroughly masticate all food. This is best done by giving it foods that requirechewing when the child first begins to eat solid food. Many mothers feed their childrenmushes, gruels, and foods that have been put through a sieve (perhaps because thechild specialist has ordered it), which may be swallowed without chewing. The resultis they never learn to chew. Never give a child mashed food or mush. If the childcan't chew its food it is not ready for that kind of food.

    If the child does not relish or desirefood it is folly to force or persuade it to eat anyway. Never compel a child to eat.If the child is uncomfortable wait till comfort returns before feeding. Childrenfed in this way will grow up strong and healthy and miss the so-called children'sdiseases. Overfeeding, and wrong food combinations are responsible for most of thediseases peculiar to children. A little intelligent attention to proper feeding willavoid all of these.

    Regularity in feeding quickly establishesthe stuffing habit. It teaches the infant to eat at certain times as a mere matterof habit, and not because there is a real demand for food. It prevents the developmentand regulation of natural desire, which, alone, is a reliable guide to frequencyin feeding.

    It goes without saying that all foodfed to infants and children should be fresh and pure. But we do well to rememberthat the most wholesome food soon becomes poisonous if taken in excess.

    NURSE your child as long as you can.So long as it is thriving well on your milk this should form its food. If it doesnot thrive well on this alone, give it an orange juice and grape juice feeding eachday, in addition to your own milk. Indeed I believe that with the poor milk supplyof modern woman, these juices should be fed even if the child does seem to thrivewell. See directions in this chapter.

    Supplement your own milk with cow'smilk or goat's milk, If you must, but do not do so, unless this becomes necessary.Let your child nurse as long as possible, even though it gets only a small amountof its food from you. Up to five years, if you can supply it milk, do so.

    Dr. Tilden says: "I am compelledto compromise with most mothers, and permit four feeds a day, and then the majoritywill sneak in a extra feed at night, which, of course, the baby has to pay for withoccasional sick spells."

    Night feeding saps the mother in supplyingthe abnormal quantity of milk and in depriving her of sleep. It overfeeds the childand causes trouble. Don't do it.

    THE WET NURSE, though now almost obsolete,has saved the lives of many children and deserves to be restored to her former positionfrom which the cow has disloged her. That the best food for an infant is that ofits own mother is undoubted by those who are in a position to know. Next to this,is the milk of a healthy, properly fed wet nurse. Indeed, where the mother's milkis defective, that of the other woman will be best for the child.

    Formerly wet nurses were more plentifulthan now, because there was more demand for them. Unnatural feeding had not thensupplanted the natural method.

    Many babies can be saved if suppliedwith the milk of a healthy wet nurse, who will be almost certain to die without it.Others that will eventually "pull through," in spite of artificial feeding,will be saved much illness and suffering and the parents will be spored much anxietyif a good wet-nurse is employed.

    The qualifications for a wet-nurseare health and cleanliness. It makes no difference what her race or color or religion,or social status. She imparts none of these to the child through her milk. In thesouth are many adults who were nursed at the breasts of "old negro mammies,"and though we often hear the old mammies say "that boy sure must have some negroin him," it is not so. We do not become cows by drinking cow's milk.

    The Wasserman test is unreliable claptrapand syphilis is a frightful night-mare. Don't worry over this in choosing a wet nurse.See that she has good health and is cleanly. See that she is properly fed.

    It does not hurt a child to be givenmilk from several women any more than it does to be given milk from several goatsor cows. Breast milk, put on ice, will keep as well or better than cow's milk. Itis also cleaner and more wholesome. Where a wet-nurse cannot be had, milk taken frommore than one woman may be fed the child.

    Hospitals, maternity homes, physiciansand nurses can usually supply one with a wet nurse. In some of our larger cities,Boston for instance, there is a directory for wet-nurses. One can usually be foundif we seek diligently enough. An ad in the paper will often produce results.

    COW'S MILK, when fed to babies shouldbe diluted. Equal parts of pure, whole, raw milk, and pure, preferably distilledwater, should be given to the young child. Absolutely nothing but water is to beadded to the milk. If goat's milk, mare's milk or asse's milk is used, these samerules and regulations should apply.

    Milk for babies should be half-and-half,--halfwater and half milk--up to six months, after which time it may be increased to twothirds milk and one third water.

    Until the child is six months old,milk feedings should be four ounce feedings.

    At six months these may be increasedto six ounce feedings.

    At nine months they may be increasedto eight ounce feedings.

    They should never be given over eightounces.

    One is apt to get a more uniform standardof milk where the milk comes from a herd of cows, than if it is taken from only onecow. It does not injure a baby to have its milk come from several cows in this way.

    LIME WATER has been added to the milkof infants for several generations, because the doctors ordered it. The lime is notonly of no value to the child, due to its crude form, it is also an irritant as wellas a nutritive evil. An excess of lime, even of the organic lime salts, interfereswith the mineral balance in the body. This is of particular importance to young babies.Besides these considerations, cow's milk contains three times as much lime as humanmilk. The giving of lime salts to children produces acidosis.

    We must get the mineral elements thatform the body in our foods. The body cannot utilize them in the forms of tincturesof minerals. Drug store iron or phosphorous or lime are not only absolutely valueless,but also harmful. This same fact holds true for common table salt.

    BICARBONATE OF SODA added to the milkof an infant is an unjustifiable stab at the baby's digestion. It increases thc alkalinityof the milk and calls for greater effort in digestion. It overworks and impairs thegastric glands. It also destroys some of the vitamins of the milk.

    MILK with corn starch, or arrow root,or crackers, or rice or barley water, or cereal water of any kind, or farina, oroatmeal, is an abomination. Babies so fed suffer and die from wasting gastrointestinaldisorders. These foods set up fermentation, diarrhea, etc.

    SUGAR should never be added to milk.It tends to produce fermentation and all of the resulting evils. A child can be givenall the sugar it needs in fruit juices.

    FRUIT SUGAR, or levulose, is predigestedand ready for instant absorption and use in the body. It is this predigested sugarthat instantly refreshes and revives the greatly fatigued man or woman.

    The best source of sugar for the infantis found in grapes. Take the required amount of fresh, ripe grapes and crush themin a vessel. Squeeze the juice out of these and strain it. Put it into a bottle andgive it to the child just like it takes its milk. Do not dilute the grape juice.Small babies may have four ounces of this at a feeding; older babies, that is aftersix months, eight ounces. Never give bottled grape-juice. Never cook the grape juice.

    When grapes are out of season unsulphuredfigs or prunes may be used instead. These should be soaked over night in the usualway, then crushed and the juice strained off. This juice should be fed in the bottleand may be given in the same amounts that the grape juice is given.

    These sweet fruit juices should notbe given with the milk but should be given three to four hours after the milk feeding.

    ORANGE JUICE is one of the most deliciousand attractive foods that can be fed to babies. It contains pre-digested food thatis ready for absorption and utilization when taken. This, perhaps, explains why aglass of orange juice is so refreshing to the tired person or to the man who hasbeen on a fast. The sweeter the orange, the more refreshing it is.

    Oranges are rich in lime and otheralkaline salts and prevent or overcome acidosis. Ignorant doctors who decry orangesbecause they "make the blood acid" need to be punished severely.

    The regular eating of orange juiceresults in the retention of calcium and phosphorous in the body, and in the assimilationof nitrogen (protein), out of all proportion to the amounts of these elements containedin the juice. The juice actually enables the body to utilize the elements betterthan it could otherwise do.

    Nothing can be more helpful to children,and particularly undernourished children than orange juice not two or three spoonsfula day, but from a glass-full to three glasses full. Don't be stingy with the orangejuice; stop kidding yourself and the child with tea-spoons full of the juice.

    Orange juice may be given to infantsfrom birth as may grape-juice. The two weeks old infant should be given juice ofone-half an orange, about two ounces, undiluted. By the time the child is three monthsold it should be taking four ounces at a feeding of undiluted orange juice. At sixmonths it should be taking eight ounces. Never add sugar or other substance to theorange juice.

    Lemon juice, lime juice, tomato juice,grape-fruit juice, melon juice or the juices of other fruits may also be used, butare not always to be had, as is orange juice. Most children will relish grapefruitjuice although many of them refuse tomato juice.

    Never give canned or cooked fruit juicesto infants and childred. Never add sugar, oil or other substance to them.

    The orange juice feeding should begiven three to four hours after the milk feeding.

    Baby's feeding schedule should be asfollows:

    6 A. M. Milk.

    10 A. M. grape juice or other sweetfruit juice. (In the south fresh fig juice may be used in season.)

    12 M. milk.

    3 P. M. to 4 P. M. orange juice ortomato juice or grapefruit juice, or other juice.

    6 P. M. Milk.

    If four milk feedings are given thesejuices should be given not less than thirty minutes before the second milk feedingof the morning and afternoon.

    MILK should be prepared as it is usedand not prepared a day's supply at a time. Bottles and nipples should be thoroughlycleansed each time but the usual fuss over these things is ridiculous and born ofthe fear engendered by the germ theory. All of this boiling and sterilizing of bottles,nipples and vessels belongs to the germ fetich. It is a lot of bothersome foolishnessthat is possessed of neither rhyme nor reason. Mothers patiently carry out such processesday after day and, then, when their over-fed, overheated, over-excited, over-treatedbabies develop diarrhea or cholera infantum, they accept the doctor's verdict thatthe child is suffering because of some want of cleanliness on the part of the mother.She failed to boil the nipple long enough, or something. If these mothers could watchyoung pigs and see how they scoff at this thing called sterlization they would demandof the doctors intelligent reasons for their babies illnesses.

    "All milk-eating creatures areand should be sucklings," says Dr. Page. Quite right! Milk should never be dranklike water. Nature teaches us how milk should be taken. So long as your child isto have milk, up to five or six years, give it to him or her from a bottle and nipple.This will insure through insalivation and prevent the child from gulping it down.

    ARTIFICIAL INFANT FOODS are undesireable.Dr. Robert McCarrison of England, says that the "seeds" of diseasesthat inevitably kill their victims in middle life are often introduced into the bodywith the first bottle of cow's milk or artificial baby food--and he is not referringto germs, either. Dr. Page condemned these various artificial foods, advertised as"substitutes for mothers milk" and, although, "many infants manageto subsist on them, and in many cases, thrive on them," he did not considerthat such foods are good.

    Dr. Tilden says: "There are manybrands of artificial foods on the market, and there are tons of these foods usedin this country every year, but so far as being of real benefit is concerned, itis doubtful if they are beneficial when it comes to supplying a need that can't besupplied by something of greater food value.

    "I do not say this from lack ofexperience, for I have had years of experience. I once believed that most of thebetter brands were really of great use, but I discover after a thoughtful retrospectionthat I have gradually and unwittingly abandoned the use of all of these foods, andit has come about not because I love them less, but because I love natural food more,and, of course, secure better results with them."

    Scurvy, rickets, anemia and malnutritionare often the results of the use of artificial foods. Many children seem to thriveon them for a while, may actually appear to do better than children fed on theirmother's milk, and then disaster overtakes them. Be not deceived by the advertisementsof those who have infants foods for sale. These concerns exist for profit and notfor baby's welfare.

    Condensed milk, evaporated milk, dryedmilk and other artificial foods are unfit for the baby and no intelligent motherwill ever feed these to her child.

    SUMMER FEEDING: Hot weather is accusedof having much to do with the fearful slaughter of the human animal-- a distinctlytropical animal and certainly well adapted to a hot climate.

    Blaming hot weather for certain "diseasespeculiar to children" and for the deaths in these conditions, is a very misleadingway of saying, as Page puts it, that, "the excess of food that can be toleratedunder the tonic and antiseptic influence of cold weather, engenders disease duringthe heated term."

    Hot weather favors decomposition, coldweather retards it. But, on the whole, we are hurt almost, if not quite as much byfood excess in the winter as in summer. We are more likely to have bowel diseasesin summer, respiratory diseases in winter--this is the chief difference.

    Adults usually instinctively eat lessin hot weather than in cool or cold weather. They often miss a meal or two altogether.How often do we hear one say "it is too hot to eat!" We find the adult,also, without any scientific knowledge of dietetics, living largely on green vegetables,fresh fruits, melons, etc. They consume bread, potatoes, meats, cereals, etc., inless liberal quantities. They frequently omit the noon-day meal.

    How many parents exercise as much commonsense in feeding their infants and children during the summer? How often do we seethe suffering infant crammed with as much milk as during the winter! Then when thebaby is made sick--There is diarrhea or fever--we see it dosed and drugged to drivethe demon of disease out of its little body.

    

    

CHAPTER XVIII
BABIES GENERAL CARE

    Shortly after a child is born it beginsto breathe. This is followed immediately with a lusty cry which means vigorous actionof the chest, diaphram and lungs and a full inflation of hitherto unused lungs withair. Shortly after that little cry has hearalded to the world the birth of anotherliving child, the physician, mid-wife or attendant severs the cord through whichthe child has secured not only its air, but its food and water, as well, during itsnine months of intra-uterine life, and its existence as an independent being is fullylaunched. From this point onward, the needs of the child are more complex and itscare is no longer so simple.

    BREATHING: Not all babies breathe immediatelyafter birth. Such cases are due chiefly to the use of anesthetics, to a difficultbirth, and to pressure upon the cord. Anesthetics and measures to hasten deliveryshould not be employed; anesthetics being justifiable only in those cases where surgicalinterferrence is essential.

    When baby does not begin to breathepromply after birth, gentle spanking, dashing cold water on the face and chest, alternateimmersion in hot and cold water, and artificial respiration are resorted to.

    As soon as the cord is severed andproperly tied the child should be wrapped in cotton or other soft material and placedwhere it will be warm and undisturbed. After a few minutes to an hour, dependingon the strength of the child, it should be carefully but quickly cleaned. The cleanbaby needs no other bath than one of plain luke-warm water. No soap should be used,and no oil. Never anoint a child's body in oil.

    Mothers who have had frequent intercourseduring pregnancy will give birth to babies covered with a cheese-like substance calledvernix caseosa. This substance can best be removed by pledgets of cotton dippedin olive oil. The oil should then be thoroughly removed from the skin.

    As soon as the baby has been cleansed,it should be prepared for bed and permitted to sleep. No food should be given forthe first twenty four hours.

    THE EYES: The eyes should be carefullycleansed with warm water and cotton pledgits. It will be well for the father to attendto this himself rather than trust it to an ignorant and careless nurse, for nursesare never trained to properly cleanse the eyes of infants.

    Infection of the eyes in infants iscomparatively rare, and in cases where it does occur, proper cleansing after birthwill prevent it. It is the medical practice to drop an antiseptic into the eyes,while naturopaths who have embraced the germ delusion use lemon juice. Thorough cleanlinessis the thing needed.

    The eyes should be shielded from strongsun light or artificial light and from dust and wind.

    THE MOUTH: There is no need for washingthe mouth of a healthy baby; either at birth or subsequently. The mouth is self-cleansing,the saliva is a sterilizing fluid and health prevents the mouth from becoming dirty.It is almost impossible to wash the mouth of a new-born baby without causing someirritation and injuring the delicate membranes and predisposing these to inflammation.Let the mouth alone.

    THE NOSE: What is said of the mouthapplies to the nose also.

    THE EARS: The external ear should bewashed daily with plain water. Keep out of the internal ear. There is always somewax in the internal ear which should be let entirely alone.

    THE GENITALIA: The genital organs shouldbe kept scrupulously clean. In girls these should be washed during the bath withplain water and absorbent cotton. No soap or antiseptics should be used on thesetender parts. Be careful to dry them throughly after each washing.

    In boys the foreskin is almost alwaystight. There is nothing abnormal about this. Every other day, however, the foreskinshould be pulled back and the secretion throughly washed away with plain water. Donot use boric acid ointment or other drugs to smear the parts with, as is usuallyadvised.

    If the foreskin is very tight, so thatcleanliness is difficult, it should be stretched each day until this difficulty isovercome. In some cases the prepuse is merely too tight to be retracted. In othersIt ts so tight that It interfere with urination, being contracted in a few casesuntil the opening is no larger than a pin head In such cases a sebaceous secretionof the glans penis, called smegma, accumulates under the foreskin, decomposes andcauses considerable irritation and even more serious trouble. Dr. Lindlahr declaresthat "the intolerable itching caused by such irritation not infrequently leadsto masturbation."

    Phimosis is the term appliedto a tight foreskin and circumcision is the customary remedy. Among the ancient Egyptiansand Jews and among the Jews of today, as well, perhaps, as among other people, circumcisionwas and is practiced as a religious rite.

    Circumcision is a barbarous and criminalprocedure, whether done as a religious ceremonial or as a medical measure. It resultsin severe surgical shock to the delicate nervous system of the child and, where ananesthetic is employed, in depressant effects from this cause also. It not infrequentlyresults in severe inflammaion and much suffering and in a few cases in death. Themedical notions that circumcision, like the pruning of a tree, results in betterdevelopment of the boy and that it also tends to prevent venereal disease are ranknonsense. Jews are not better developed than Irish or French, while the fact thatthere is as much venereal disease among them as among other tribes is proof thatcircumcision is a mighty poor substitute for good behavior.

    In phimosis, if daily traction willnot overcome it, a probe should be inserted and the part stretched. The foreskinshould be drawn over the end of a syringe and warm water forced into the cavity betweenthe glans and foreskin, to cleanse it. It necessary, a doctor may be called to dilatethe foreskin with a dilator. It causes a little pain but is soon over. In cases wherethe foreskin is adhered to the glans, it should be peeled loose.

    THE NAVEL: This is usually an objectof much concern, except in the lower animals. It is the custom to wash it with antisepticsand put a "drying powder"--arisol, bismuth subgallate, etc.--on it. A shieldis then placed over the parts and the usual "belly-band" tied around thechild. All of this monkey-work is pernicious and needless.

    Cleanliness is all the navel requires.Clean it with plain warm water and let it alone. If the navel is discharging anda strap is applied to it, so that the discharge is pent- up, Infection is almostsure to follow.

    THE SKIN: Two things are needed bythe skin of a baby--cleanliness and dryness. Anything else is pernicious.A baby's skin is tender and delicate and becomes irritated from slight causes. Soap,powders, oil, dampness, especially in the folds and creases of babies with the fat-bloat,soap-containing diapers, rough clothing, uncleanliness, drugs, etc., irritate theskin.

    Wash the baby in warm water. Use nosoap or other unnatural preparation. Keep powders and oils--olive oil, lanolin, etc.--offits skin. Oil only succeeds in occluding the pores of the skin. Massage creams areworse and should not be employed.

    Powders often contain poisonous antiseptics;but are not to be used even where they do not. They are dirt, at best.

    Rough towels, rough cloths, etc., shouldnot be used on a baby's skin.

    CHAFFING: This is due to dirt, a wetskin, sweat or water left in the folds of fat on fat babies, over clothing, tightclothing etc. The usual treatment disregards the causes. Bran baths, powders, medicatedand otherwise, sea-salt baths, vinegar, starch and boric-acid powder, etc., are thefoolish procedures of the "do something" schools.

    If a child is washed in plain water,throughly dried after each bath, not allowed to acquire the fat-bloat and is notover clothed, its skin will not chafe. If it has been allowed to chafe there is nothingbetter for it than to expose the baby's body to the air.

    THE SCALP: This should be washed everyday with plain water.

    "Cradle Cap" is ascaly condition of the scalp seen in some babies. Medical treatment consists of shampoos,olive oil soaks, applications of boric acid salve, and scraping the scalp with afine comb.

    All that is required is cleanlinessand sun and air. Keep drug, and soaps and oils off baby's head.

    SWADLING BANDS: As soon as baby isborn it has to be propped up and girded with hoops and bands to prevent it from fallingto pieces. Accordingly, a band is pinned snugly about its abdomen and it must wearthe thing for several days--to prevent rupture--after birth. Pregnancy and parturitionare also such unnatural conditions that nature is unable to meet such emergencies,so the mother must be tightly bound around the waist as soon as the baby is bornto keep her from falling apart.

    Injurious belly-bands about an infantsabdomen, often pinned as tightly as a woman's corset, diapers pinned so smugly aboutthe waist and drawn so tight between the legs as to produce discomfort and pain,make life very unpleasant for many infants. There is not the slightest reason whythe abominable bands should be worn by either mother or child.

    Medical works advocate the wearingof abdominal bands "as long as it is possible to buy them large enough (tenyears), the reason for this being that it is important to protect the bowels fromsudden changes in temperature or chilling even in older children."

    Why not also in adults? Surely bandscan be made that are largely enough for the biggest of us. The fact is that thisband business belongs to the sick habit and the doctoring game and is injurious bunk.There is no reason for these bands. These sudden changes of temperature are quitenatural and man can meet them as well as rabbits or deer.

    E. B. Lowry, M. D. says, in YourBaby: "A baby's bands should not be taken off until he has finished teething.Day and night, winter and summer, the baby should have flannel (not outing flannel)about his abdomen. He is far less likely to have summer complaint if he wears bands.After the first few months it is better to get the knitted ones with shoulder strapsas these require no pins and there is no danger of them being to tight. For the firstfew months, the bands, should be fastened snugly (not tight) so as to prevent ruptureof the umbilicus."

    No sensible, well informed parent willever follow such insane advice. Keep these bands off of the baby from the first dayof its life. Summer complaint, due to overfeeding, will not be prevented by suchhoodooism.

    When I read through a medical workon obstetrics, the strongest impression that comes to me is that it is almost impossiblefor a woman to give birth to a baby. When I read through a medical work on the careof babies ,I get the impression that it is almost impossible for a baby to live.It seems that nature cannot take care of our babies as she did those of the "caveman" or as she does those of the lion or eagle. If we are not carefully heldtogether with artificial bands we will rupture! Instead of compelling prospectivedoctors to spend three years in pre-medical training before they can enter medicalcollege, why not compel them to spend two years on a ranch?

    Ridges and red lines on the abdomen,made there by these strips of flannel, are seen on the abdomen of babies whose mothershave put them on tight as the belly-band of a saddle. Many a fretful, wakeful andcrying baby has been doped and purged for colic whose suffering was the result ofthese tight bands. There is no earthly need for these bands to start with; thereis still less need for them being drawn as tight as the corsets of our mother's girlhooddays.

    Dr. Oswald said: "Indian babiesnever cry; they are neither swaddled nor cradled, but crawl around freely, and sleepin the dry grass or on the fur covered floor of the wigwam. Continued rocking wouldmake the toughest sailor sea-sick. Tight swaddling is downright torture; it wouldtry the patience of a Stoic to keep all his limbs in a constrained position for sucha length of time; a young ape subjected to the same treatment would scream from morningtill night."

    WARMTH: Infants and young childrenmust be kept warm and not allowed to chill. They must not be over clothed or tooheavily covered, but they must be kept comfortably. warm. I believe in the good old-fashionednatural method of cuddling an infant to warm it

    BATHING: Daily bathing, or as oftenas needed, is necessary to cleanliness. Luke warm water should be employed. No soapshould be used. The warm bath may be followed by a cool (not cold) splash. Then thechild should be thoroughly dried. By all means do not soak all the vitality out ofyour child as many mothers do. The quicker a child is thoroughly cleansed and dried,the better for its health and strength.

    A daily air bath should be given theinfant and child and a sun bath every day the sun shines.

    CLOTHING: Baby's clothing should bemade of silk, soft cotton, or linen. Wool should not be worn next to the skin.

    Clothing should be loose and simpleand no more should be put upon the child than is necessary for comfort. Do not pamperand coddle the child. The child that is overwrapped, other things being equal, willhave more colds than a child that most people would consider underclad.

    In the summer and in warm climatesthe rule should be: WEAR NO MORE THAN ENOUGH CLOTHES TO KEEP OUT OF JAIL. In thecase of infants a diaper will be enough. Let the baby be comfortable and cool. Inolder children a sun suit in warm weather is the near ideal.

    Hats, bonnets, caps and other head-gearare for Indian chiefs and clowns. Keep them off baby's head. Except when the thermometeris down below freezing, there is no need to cover baby's head when it is taken out.Garters and tight bands are decidedly bad. Shoes should not be worn before the childwalks and should be broad of toe with no heels.

    Diapers should be light and loose.They should be washed before using and should never be merely dried, without washing,and then used. Don't pin the diaper so snugly about the baby that all circulationof air about the parts is cut off. This will make the baby hot and uncomfortable.

    DIAPERS, or hip-pins, should be changedas soon as they are wet. The child should be sponged off and dried before anotherdiaper is put on.

    The diaper should then be washed beforeusing again. Skin derangements are often caused by using diapers after they havebeen wet and dried without being washed. Keep the skin clean and there will be nochafing, excoriations, scalding or skin irritations. These are caused by a lack ofcleanliness--they are prevented and cured by cleanliness.

    I quote the following from Dr. Tilden:"It is not necessary for a child to have any malodors. Perfume is absurd; itneither covers the odor coming from lack of cleanliness, nor causes the child tobe clean. There is no odor so splendid as the real sweetness of cleanliness. Perfume,like the doctor's antiseptic, is made to hide, or antidote, filth. Neither is neededwhen proper cleanliness is maintained; and both should be recognized as advertisinglack of cleanliness."

    DRESS: The summer, night dress shouldbe a short, thin cotton or linen gown, or nothing but a diaper. Comfort at nightmeans sound restful sleep. An overdressed and, therefore, overheated child is restlessand does not sleep well.

    In winter the gown may be of heaviermaterial and long enough to cover the feet. Over clothing and too much covering atnight cause much suffering in infants and children. Dr. Page aptly remarked, overcarefulparents often force their children to undergo such an amount of clothing and "tuckingup" in bed, as literally to constitute the "dry pack," "a sweatingprocess which is tolerable only for short intervals, being very depleting when longcontinued."

    In homes heated by hot air, hot wateror steam, where a summer temperature is maintained at all times, children shouldbe dressed in winter as in summer. They will require more clothing in homes heatedby stove or fireplace.

    Dr. Page says: "Babies are oftentortured by too many and too tight-fitting garments, through the ignorance or carelessnessof their attendants, or simply to gratify a mother's silly pride, and are treatedin all respects, in many cases, more like a doll in the hands of a make-believe mother,than like a sensitive little human being entitled to every possible comfort, in thefree use of the developing body, limbs, muscles, and organs."

    BOWELS: The stools of a newborn aredark-green for two or three days after which they become brown. The stools resemblemelted tar. There is, then, a gradual change from brown to yellow; by the end ofthe first week the stools should be a golden yellow. The foolish practice of some,of giving laxatives to babies to rid their bowels of this dark feces is perniciousin the extreme. For your child's sake break yourself of this doctoring habit. Letthe baby's bowels alone and let them take care of their own function. Don't beginto build chronic constipation in the child from the day of birth.

    WATER: Most authors urge frequent waterdrinking upon infants. Just now excessive water drinking is a fad and is heraldedas almost a panacea. It is quite natural that baby must also become a victim of thissenseless fad.

    My two boys did not get water to drinkuntil they were each a year old and at this writing the little girl (age 6 months)has not had water. Children on milk and fruit juices are on a diet that is almostall water and have no real need for a lot of chlorinated, iodized and mineralizedwater.

    SLEEP: At birth the normal infant sleepsapproximately 20 hours out of each twenty-four, during the first month. As it growsolder the amount of sleeping it does grows somewhat less. From one month to six monthsthe normal infant averages about sixteen hours sleep a day; from six months to ayear, about 15 hours; from a year to two years, about 14 hours; from two years tofive years, eleven to fourteen hours.

    The healthy infant sleeps more andsounder than the sick one. The more a baby sleeps the more it grows. Overfed infantsdo not sleep as well as properly fed ones. The acutely ill child that is fed hardlysleeps at all. It is fitful restless and irritable and cries most of the time. Theacutely ill child that is not fed, or that is given fruit juices only, sleeps mostof the time. It is less irritable and not so restless.

    Sleep in infants and children shouldbe encouraged. The sleeping infant should not be waked at meal time to feed it. Doctorsand nurses make an awful lot of unnecessary fuss about regularity in feeding. Thisregularity is unnatural and unnecessary. Nature knows nothing of regularly in eating.Irregularity might almost be said to be the rule. If then, baby sleeps for an houror more past feeding time it is well and good. If the child sleeps so long that ameal is missed entirely it is well. Never wake a child to feed it.

    As children grow older they shouldbe allowed to sleep for as long as nature demands immediately after their noon mealeach day. There is benefit and not injury in going to bed and to sleep immediatelyafter eating. Children who do not secure this afternoon "nap" grow tiredand cross and are prone to cry and fuss a great deal. Their health and growth sufferfrom this lack of sleep. The more they sleep, the better for them, and this afternoonnap will be good if they keep it up until they are a hundred or more years old.

    A healthy child will sleep throughthe night if not disturbed. A child that is not over fed will not pass urine andfeces, at frequent intervals during the night. Overfeeding, overclothing, overheating,chilliness' soiled diapers, pain, discomfort from any cause --a loose safety pin,wrinkles in its clothes, etc.--will cause a child to wake. Physical comfort is thegreatest hypnotic (sleep producer) a child can have.

    Keep the child always in a well ventilatedroom. Last winter I went into a home where a young infant was kept in a gas-heatedroom with the windows always down. The infant was never well and did not sleep well.I advised that the child be kept in an unheated, but well ventilated room. This advicewas followed with happy results. Better sleep and improved health followed immediately.Infants cannot breathe without air. Give them plenty of it. Keep them out doors winterand summer. It is good for them. The baby's face should never be covered or "tuckedin," but should remain fully exposed while in its crib or carriage.

    TEETH: After advising regular brushingof the teeth of young children, Morse-Wyman-Hill say: "Every child should betaken to the dentist as soon as it is three years old, or earlier, if necessary,and thereafter every six months." What for? "In order that the teeth maybe examined and any cavities which may have developed filled while they are stillsmall." In plain English, these authorities do not expect the advice they giveto mothers for the care of the teeth of infants to insure and preserve good teeth.They say in effect: Take our advice and then go to the dentist to "remedy"the results of following such advice Filling a cavity does not correct or removethe causes that have produced the cavity and, therefore, does not prevent the cavityfrom becoming larger and the filling falling out. We reject the ideal of frequentexaminations of the teeth, with early discovery and early filling of cavities. Weinsist on preserving the teeth whole. To this end, never permit the brushing of achild's tooth before the child is fifteen years old, and not even after this age,if you value the teeth and gums of your child. Scrubbing away the gums and teethof a child is a poor means of preserving its teeth. Such a program results in pyorrheain many children around the age of thirteen.

    Health and a proper diet will produceand preserve good teeth. Without these there can be no good teeth.

    The present tooth brushing insanitywas organized some years ago by a company which manufactured and sold tooth brushes,tooth pastes, toilet articles, etc. They conceived of a plan to increase their profitsby inducing everyone to brush their teeth several times a day. Part of this planconsisted in getting dentists into the schools of the land to examine the teeth andrecommended the tooth paste of this particular company. At first the scheme failed,but after enough newspaper publicity and lengthy "discussions" the SchoolsBoards consented to let the dentists go to work. The ultimate success of the schemewas greater than any member of the manufacturing company had ever dreamed of, evenin his wildest moments. Today the dentists are not only in the schools, they arebeing paid out of public funds, for the work of drumming up trade for dentists andtooth bush manufacturers. "Credits" are given to those children who possesand vigorously use tooth brushes, while the tooth-brush drill is a regular featurein many schools.

    At the present time no one dares questionthe value of this silly practice. Everyone advises and endorses the tooth brush andthe soaps that are used on the teeth. It is rank heresy to dispute their value. Idispute it nevertheless.

    THE EYEBROWS: In her Better Babies,Anna Steese Richardson says: You child has a right to all the beauty with which youcan endow it. If your baby has thin eyebrows and lashes, try to encourage their growth.It can be done. Feed the eyebrows with a little cocoa butter, or vaseline. If youare very careful you can even touch the lashes with a tiny camel's-hair brush dippedin melted vaseline. I know a man and wife whose looks were marred by scanty lashesand colorless brows. When their babies came the woman determined to do somethingto improve the unfortunate inheritance. She rubbed vaseline into the brows, had thelashes cut twice before the babies were three months old, asking the family physician,an excellent surgeon, to do this for her, and she touched the roots of the lasheswith melted vaseline. Her children, now in their teens, have beautiful brows andlashes."

    This is misleading bunk. The hair cannotbe fed from without. Even if it could be, oil is not hair food and does not stimulatehair growth. Still less is vaseline, an inorganic grease, made from petroleum, ofvalue. Cutting the hair will not make it thicker or put hair where there is none.Cocoa-butter, olive oil, vaseline, hair tonics, etc., are without the least value.They all belong to the doctoring habit--directly descended from voodooism.

    HANDLING: Most babies are handled toomuch. The young of no other species can withstand so much handling and survive. Kittens,puppies, goslings, calves, birds, indeed all young animals, soon languish and dieif handled very much. Man, including infant man, can live through more abuse, ofall kinds, than any other animal on earth. Nevertheless millions of infants are injuredin health and many of them killed by being subjected to too much handling. The followingwords of Dr. Trall are to the point:

    "Never mistake infants for toys or playthings. Never employ them to amuse yourself or entertain company. Never exhibit them for the purpose of reflecting inherited charm and qualities of which the parents are proud--perhaps justly."

    EXERCICE: Trall declared that "thebusiness of infants is to grow," and that to grow normally they must have exercise.The exercise of infants and children is self-regulating, if they are given an oportunityto express themselves, physically. The best exercise for infants, said Trall, isletaloneativeness. Place them on a smooth surface, do not bind and cramp them,throw off their clothes and let them exercise in a natural manner. Elastic baby jumpersand other such contrivances are not commendable.

    The best excercise in the world forthe baby is to place it face down on the bed or palate and let it work. This is Dr.Page's method. Lying on its back, its back and neck muscles are never exercised,while they are overheated. The back, neck, arm, and legs get the best of exercisewhen the baby is face down. It develops a strong neck and back and sturdy arms andlegs. Place them on their faces from the day of birth. They will be better babiesfor it.

    ROCKING: Babies should never be rocked.The old habit of rocking babies to sleep is particularly pernicious.

    

    
CHAPTER XIX
FEEDING CHILDREN FROM TWO TO SIX YEARS

    Infants and children are not addictedto the many weakening and enervating practices so common among adults. For instancewe cannot accuse any infant of bringing on enervation and toxemia by the tobaccohabit or by sexual excesses or over work or jealously, etc. Babies are subjectedto many adverse influences, but probably the worst of these is over feeding, or improperfood.

    A friend writes from New York thather little child was very sick, but had recovered. She adds: "she was gainingin weight so nicely. Looked fine, and everybody remarked how lovely she looked, andhow pretty she was getting and then she had to get sick and lose weight again."

    Acute illness as a means of castingoff excess lard, is nature's preferred method. Nature really doesn't admire a fatbaby, as misguided parents do.

    The lady then tells of her boy, ageabout eight, that he "was having a terrible time with his teeth--had cavitiesthat sure gave him trouble. I started him off with a dentist--already had two extractionsand one tooth filled; will have two more extracted soon."

    She then adds that she also had tohave dental work done. She is on the sunny side of thirty and had $63 worth of dentalwork done at one time. She adds: "I haven't been feeling well for a long time.I don't know what the trouble is. Almost every day I have a headache--don't feellike myself at all. I am afraid to go to a doctor because it generally ends wiltan operation (of which she has had several), or something just as bad.

    Her husband is also troubled in variousways. The whole family from the baby to the oldest member is sick and ailing Why?The medical profession answers, "germs." I say, and I know how they live,it is a very faulty mode of living particularly a faulty diet.

    Children are frequently made into averitable dumping ground for all the various patented foods, emulsions, and evendrugs that clever advertisers offer to the public and to physicians.

    They are victims of the fallacy thatthey require lots of fats and sugars and starches, which has evolved the presentone-sided and deficient diet. This diet is virtually robbed of mineral salts andvitamins and then doctors and parents add a few teaspoonsful of tomato juice, ororange juice and nauseous cod-liver oil to this diet, to make up for its deficiencies.Cod-liver oil and other fatty emulsions added to a diet already over-burdened withfat only helps to make the child sick.

    "Infants are kept in arms, rocked,tossed, trotted, and stuffed with food, in a vain effort to keep them quiet,"when they are suffering from surfeit, and the older child is fed in season and outon a diet that is more in the nature of a poison than of food.

    Everywhere one goes he sees childreneating cookies, candies, crackers, ice cream and other worthless things. "Withhands full of cookies and pockets full of peanuts" they gorge and stuff, fillingtheir little bodies full of these acid-forming foods and robbing their tissues oftheir precious alkaline elements.

    I recently saw a little child pickup a luscious ripe cherry in. a fruit store and start to eat it. Her mother immediatelysaid "Don't put that in your mouth; it is not good for you. I will give youa cake when we get outside, but don't eat that."

    Such lamentable ignorance! Most peopledeserve to lose their children. My sympathies are for the children. Any parent canhave the truth about the proper care of children who will seek to acquire it. Mostof them are too brain-lazy and indifferent. It is so much easier to follow traditionsand customs.

    If this mother desired to teach herchild not to take fruit from the stores, she certainly went at it the wrong way.The idea that she conveyed to the child was not, that it should not take the fruit,because it should never take that which belongs to another; but that she should noteat the fruit, because it was not good for her--would make her sick.

    Parents often feel sorry for theirchildren when they see them deprived of certain foods, but they are wasting theirsympathies. Such sympathies are tantamount to wishing for them a continuance of disease."When parents are intelligent enough to know their duty to their children,"says Dr. Tilden, "they will not feel sorry for them because they are not eatingin a way to make them sick."

    Too many parents are ruled by theiremotions and sentiment and not by knowledge and reason. Give your child. those foodsthat are good for it and do not cultivate in him an appetite for harmful foods.

    Beginning with the second year fruitsand vegetables may be added to the child's diet. Any fruit in season, if well ripened,may be fed. There is no reason to fear fruit of any kind; peaches, plums, apricots,cherries, figs, apples, pears, grapes, berries, bananas, and so on through the wholelist. Give the child the pulp and all--not merely the juice.

    Water melons, cantaloups, honey dewmelons and melons of all kinds may be given. All kinds, of nuts, except peanuts,which are not nuts, may be given.

    Any or all fresh vegetables may begiven either raw or cooked, preferably raw. Spinach, chard, kale, cabbage, beet tops,turnip tops, asparagus, celery, lettuce, tomatoes, onions, squash, fresh green beans,brussel sprouts, cauliflower, etc., may all be given to the child. Carrots, peas,fresh corn, (not canned corn or peas), beets, parnips, salsify, etc., may also befed. There is no reason to fear to feed your child vegetables, provided they arefresh and clean and properly prepared. Do not give the child any processed starches,refined sugars, or so-called "breakfast foods." The widespread use of "breakfastfoods" is one of the worst of our present day dietary faults. Corn flakes, puffedrice, puffed wheat, bran foods, cream of wheat, cream of barley, wheatena, etc.,are not good foods for child or adult. All the great claims made for them are false.For heaven's sake never feed these things to your child. Oatmeal is perhaps the worstof all cereals for child or adult. Cereals are among the most difficult of foodsto digest. These certainly do not belong in the diet of infants and young childrenwhen the ability to digest starch is so low.

    Give no sugar, salt or soda with anything.The practice of neutralizing the acid of lemons, by adding soda to the lemon juice,is both useless and injurious.

    It is necessary to observe the samerules for combining foods, when feeding these to the child as when feeding them tothe adult.

    Do not feed the child cooked fruit.

    Do not feed acid fruits and starchyfoods or sweet foods together.

    Do not feed sweet fruits and acid (sour)fruits together.

    Do not feed sugar or starch with proteinfoods.

    Do not feed sweet foods with starehfoods.

    Feed but one protein at a time.

    Feed no protein food with milk.

    Feed plenty of green vegetables withboth starches and proteins.

    Do not feed butter, oil or other fatwith protein foods.

    Do not feed between meals.

    Give the child 3 meals a day, includinghis three nursings which are simply supplemented with these foods.

    If you desire to bring up your childwithout the need of a doctor, with perfect digestion, freedom from disease, goodteeth, a splendid body and alert mind, follow the advice given herein and keep awayfrom sugars, refined starches and all processed foods. If you are fond of addingto the incomes of physicians and also seeing your children suffer and die, followthe "good old fashioned way" that it is the vogue all around you.

    Morse-Wyman-Hill say children "mustbe made to eat what is given them, ### whether they like it or not, because it ismost important for older children and adults to eat a general diet. ### A baby shouldbe made to eat its foods as they are given to it, even if its nose has to be heldin order to make it swallow."

    This is criminal advice and if followed,is a sure way of creating in the child an antipathy towards its food or some foodand a spirit of antagonism. The spirit of children is not so easly broken and subduedas these authors assert. They resist coercion long after an adult has submitted himselfto the yoke and become a slave.

    Children do not have to be forced toeat that which is wholesome and good, if they have been fed properly from the startand have not had their appetites and sense of taste spoiled by sugar, salt, pepper,spices, etc. Too many children have their appetites for plain food spoiled by thevulgar habit of seasoning their foods and cultivating in them the same perversionsof the sense of taste and the same abnormal cravings that are seen in adults. Jamor jelly is put on their bread or crackers, sugar is put into their milk, sweet cookiesare fed to them often, they are given candy or ice cream or little knicknacks betweenmeals, or they are given sugar out of the sugar bowl. Mayonnaise or other such slopis smeared over their food. Their appetites become so cloyed and their sense of tasteso perverted that they no longer enjoy plain food. When they grow older their pervertedtaste and jaded appetites and overstimulated bodies will demand tobacco, alcohol,and petting; also sex-slush in their movies and novels.

    This varied or general diet idea hasbeen and is being greatly overworked, both as regards children and adults. At noprevious period in history did man have the great variety of foods he now has. Buthe does not need to eat every food that grows just because they are now available.

    There is no indispensible food. Ifa child does not like spinach, and many of them do not, there are other foods justas good, or better, that he will like. I have seen a baby's nose held to force itto swallow a poisonous drug prescribed by a doctor, and I don't believe in this methodof forcing a distasteful food down a child's throat any more than I believe in itsuse to compel the child to swallow the doctor's dope.

    Never force a child to eat. If he isnot hungry let him go without food. His own sense of hunger is a better guide asto when he should eat than all the science of all the ex-spurts in the world, whoknow all about the thing, and know it all wrong.

    You supply them with plain, wholesomenatural foods and no other kind and leave it to their natural instincts to teachthem to eat foods that are good for them. Set them a good example--they will followa good example as readily as they will a bad one.

    I leave been asked whether or not itwould be safe to turn children loose and let them eat what and when they will. justas animals do. The answer is yes, provided you supply them with natural foods, donot urge then to over eat and have not previously perverted their sense of tasteand cultivated in them the stuffing habit. Don't season and sweeten their foods tostimulate a false appetite and induce them to over eat.

    Children quite naturally eat monotrophicmeals. They like to make a meal on one thing. Parents usually do not permit themto do this, being under the variety "spell" and being convinced that wehave to have our variety all at one meal . If children were given natural foods theycould safely be left to follow out their instinctive monotrophic practices. But topermit a child to make a meal on jam and bread, or on cake, or on cheese, and macaroni,would not be so good.

    A few words may be said about the foodsthat people have unfounded fears concerning.

    FRUITS are especially valuable forthe mineral salts, sugar, organic acids, vitamins and distilled water which theycontain.

    APPLES are among the choicest of foods.They are rich in phosphoric acid and are especially valuable for nervous and ricketychildren. They contain much iron in its most assimilable form.

    STRAWBERRIES are delicious and containa sweet acid that makes them popular as food. They are rich in food-iron and foodlime, excelling all other fruits, except the raspberry and fresh fig, in richnessin iron. They are also richer in iron than most vegetables, being excelled as a sourceof iron only by green peas and fresh lima beans. They are also rich in vitamins.

    Dewberries, blackberries, raspberries,huckelberries, and all other berries are fine for children. They should always befed raw, never cooked, and never with sugar.

    BANANAS have long been condemned bythe medical profession as indigestible. This was declared false by the Hygienistswho highly recommended them. "Orthodox" experimenters now declare thatthe banana, when fully ripe, is easily digested. But the average physician has notfound this out. Bananas are very wholesome food and rank high in vitamins. They shouldonly be eaten when thoroughly ripe, and should never be cooked.

    NUTS are also very bad food and veryindigestible, if we listen to the antiquated pill-peddlers and serum squirters, whoclaim to have been commissioned by the Almighty to look after our health. Nuts arenot indigestible. They are the best of foods, and if thoroughly masticated, and noteaten at the end of a hearty meal, are easily enough digested.

    RAW STARCH is not indigestible as isgenerally taught and believed. It is well known that cattle digest raw starch moreeasily and completely than cooked starch. Milo Hastings has shown the same thingto be true with man. The Department of Agriculture, in Washington, conducted experimentswhich revealed that raw corn, rice and other starches are digested in amounts upto eight ounces daily. Raw potatoes showed a digestibility of seventy-eight per cent.

    Berg advises "from five to seventimes as much vegetables, potatoes and salt-rich fruits (apples and pears are poorin this respect), as of meat, eggs or cereal products--for otherwise an adequateexcess of bases cannot be guaranteed," to supply the needs of growing children.With this I concur. The pregnant and nursing mother should make up her diet in thesame way, if she wishes to supply her child with adequate bases.

    Now for a few words about some of theold stand-bye that have served long and well the interests of doctors and undertakers.

    MEAT BROTHS have practically no value.They act as stimulants rather than as foods, and all such stimulation is decidedlyinjurious.

    MEAT should never be fed to a childunder six years of age, and better never at all.

    EGGS are divided into yolk andwhite. The yolk is an alkaline food, the white is an acid-ash food. The whiteis difficult to digest and poorly assimilated, if at all, and contains poisonousproperties that render it dangerous as food. Leave out all eggs.

    PICKLES are indigestible and unfitfor food.

    PRESERVED FRUITS are confectionery.Do not consume these abominations with any thought that they represent fruit.

    SUGAR and honey should never be eatenwith fruit of any kind. Fermentation is almost sure to result.

    Dr. Wm. H. Hay says: "Withouta doubt the greatest curse of the early years of child life is the general impressionthat sugars are good for children, furnishing many calories of energy, either thisor the use of pastries and the two evils are one, for the same objection that holdsagainst the sugars holds equally against the pastries."

    One's heart must grow faint when hesees the children of this country stuffing bon-bons, cakes, crackers, bread and jam,candy, ice-cream, soda-fountain slops, and similar stuff down their throats at allhours of the day. What do parents mean, by giving these things to their children?

    Children soon cultivate a "sweet-tooth"and are not long in learning that they can get what they cry for, if they only cryloud enough and long enough. How many mothers and fathers have the moral courageto listen to a baby's cry? Not many. They are ruled by sentiment and emotion, ratherthan by knowledge and reason. It is so hard for them to listen to the cry of thebaby; they feel so sorry for the poor child. They don't want their baby to cry. Itis so hard on their nerves to listen to baby cry. They are just moral cowards andsentimental jelly-fish, who injure their children physically, mentally, emotionally,socially and morally, because they have not disciplined themselves to do what isright. They take the easiest course for the present, little reckoning that they haveto pay for it later.

    Baby soon learns that if it will onlycry for a few minutes it does not have to eat spinach, but can have cake instead.Mother will give it ice-cream or candy if it only cries for it. What a terrible morallesson to teach a child!

    The cracker-habit usually follows thesucking habit. Baby discards its nipple and takes up the cracker. If he is takento church, to the theatre, to the park, to a friend's house or goes to see grandma,he must have his cracker. Mother carries a whole box of crackers,--nice white ones,well salted, or graham crackers, well sweetened--along with her, for baby must havea cracker every few minutes. If he does not get a cracker he is pulling at mother'sdress and crying and fretting. The cracker is given him to solace him and keep himquite.

    Poor mother! Poor child! They are bothundisciplined and ignorant. Mother is the slave of her badly spoiled child and isas badly spoiled as the child.

    The whole program of living of suchchildren is wrong and ill need of correction from the ground up. Can such mothersbe induced to make the needed change? Have they the moral courage to let baby "cryit out" and adjust himself to a better life? I fear not. Their emotions wouldget the best of them.

    Morse-Wyman-Hill say: "There isno food which causes more disturbances of digestion in childhood than sugar. As moneyis said to be the root of all evil, so sugar may be said to be the root of all disturbancesof digestion in childhood. Further than this, sugar is a very common cause of lossof appetite in children, and destroys their appreciation of proper food. It also,more than any other one thing, is responsible for the decay of children's teeth.Candy, therefore, should never be given to children. It can do them no good and maydo them much harm. It is idle, of course, to claim that two or three pieces of candya day will disturb the average child's digestion or prevent its normal development.Children that have two or three pieces, however, usually want more, and are quitelikely to get more. It is true that some kinds of candy are richer and more indigestiblethan others, but they are all made of sugar, and plain sugar is bad for children.Children should be brought up not to eat sugar on anything. There is no objectionto putting a little sugar in the food during its preparation, but no sugar shouldbe put on it when it is served. (This is a case of splitting hairs--sugar is justas harmful when put in the food as when put on it. H. M. S.)

    "It is often said that sugar isa necessary article of diet for children. This belief is fostered by the manufacturersof sugar and of candy. It is, however, not true. Carbohydrates are advisable forchildren as a source of energy. They are not absolutely necessary, however, as isshown by the fact that Eskimo children grow up without them." (Eskimo childrendo not grow up without carbohydrates. H. M. S.)

    Sugar, candy, syrup, etc., inhibitgastric secretion and impair digestion. This is true of cakes, pies, etc. It is justas true of brown sugar, maple sugar, and cakes and cookies made of whole-wheat flourand brown sugar or honey, as of white sugar and white flour products.

    Two or three pieces of candy a daymay not perceptibly injure children; but when it is added to the cookies, cakes,pies, jams, jellies, white bread, denatured cereals, saturated with white, or evenbrown sugar, mashed potatoes, pasteurized milk, and other denatured products, itonly adds to an already preponderantly acid forming diet and further leeches thechild's body of its precious alkaline elements.

    Many candies contain poisonous dye-stuffs,adulterants, flavors, etc., as well as nuts, milk and other things that form, withthe sugar, bad combinations.

    ICE-CREAM is an abominable mixtureof canned milk, powdered milk, pasteurized milk, gelatin, sugar or syrup, coloringmatter, flavoring extracts and often of canned fruits. It is no good for child oradult.

    The following is quoted from TheIce Cream Field, the National Journal of the ice-cream manufacturers, for July,1928; and is headed, "Baby specialist Favors Ice Cream."

    "Ice cream has been prescribed for infant food for several years by Dr. Luther R. Howell, of Columbus, Ohio, one of America's leading baby specialists. Dr. Howell states that ice cream has proven an ideal food for undernourished babies and in several instances was a means of saving their lives. He says that the homogenization of milk and cream, as carried out in the manufacturing process of ice cream, makes the food particularly digestible, an important factor in infant feeding."

    This is just plain ordinary bunk and knownto be false even by the man who made the statement. In McCall's magazine,July, 1926. Dr. E. V. McCollum wrote:

    "There is no more attractive way of serving milk to your family than in good ice cream. We have constantly emphasized the importance of drinking more milk, for the average amount consumed per person is still far too low. The more frequent serving of ice cream at the family table is one of the easiest ways of getting milk into the diet, especially for children who do not like milk and for persons who demand food with marked flavors."

    Men who have been stung by the milk-bugdon't care how they get milk into you, so long as they get you to take it. Why dochildren cease to like milk? If milk is so necessary, why does nature cut off boththe supply and the demand? In opposition to this rank nonsense about ice-cream Ioffer the followng words of Morse-Wyman-Hill, who say:

    "Ice-cream, Ice-cream soda, and other sweet drinks ### are always inadvisable for and usually harmful to children. They are harmful chiefly because of the sugar which they contain, partly because they are too cold, partly because they are too rich, and partly because they are usually taken between meals. Children would be better off without any of them. Ice- cream is probably less harmful than the others. Vanilla ice-cream is not as rich as the other kinds. The majority of people are so willing to take the chance of injuring their children's health in order to give them temporary pleasure that we have found it useless to attempt to cut ice-cream entirely out of the diet of children. We therefore compromise and allow the children to have plain Vanilla ice-cream without any sauce on it once a week."

    It was asserted at a dental meeting a yearor so ago that slaughter-house offal and scraps are now bought up and the fat renderedout of these and used in ice-cream instead of the cream of milk--cooked animal tallow,suet and lard now sold to your children in ice cream!, while subsidized ex-spurtslure you on to "eat a plate of ice-cream every day," and tell you thatice-cream is a "health food."

    COD LIVER OIL is not to be regardedas a food. Its use as a medicine covers several centuries but its magic virtuesare recent discoveries. For a few years it was a specific for rickets, bothpreventing and curing the disease. Now it must have the aid of better food and sunlight,or at least lamp light. There is not really much attention given to sunlight.

    Mr. Hater's statement that the givingof "from six to ten drops of cod-liver oil every other day, increasing the proportionas the child becomes older, until at the age of twelve the child is taking"a half a tea-spoonful three times a week "sounds a little like witchcraft,"is good. He adds, "It seems only a step from oil from fish livers to the extractof frogs' tongues and newts' gizzards."

    I have never used cod-liver oil, butit has fallen to my lot to care for children to whom it had been given for longeror shorter periods without benefit. I have seen troubles that I am convinced resultedfrom its use. I advise all parents not to give it to their children.

    YEAST is a commercial product and allthe claims made for it are simply designed to sell more yeast and, thereby, increasethe profits of the yeast manufacturers, who have no more interest in promoting yourhealth than have coal-mine owners. Subsidized physicians and scientists are quotedby the yeast companies to convince you of its great value. These statements haveas much value as those of any other man who says what he is paid to say.

    There is no evidence that yeast preparationsor extracts are more effective, more practical or more available sources of vitaminsthan the common fruits and vegetables of garden and orchard. Indeed, the yeast companieshave about completely abandoned this claim and tell us that the value of the yeastlies in other elements it contains. In what other elements, then? They never say.

    Claims for the prophylactic and therapeuticvalue of yeast are false and misleading. Yeast is a ferment and has been employedas such for ages. It sets up fermentation in the digestive tract and this is certainlynot desirable.

    IODIN in water, in salt and in variousdrug preparations is advised and freely given to prevent goitre in children, a lackof iodin being regarded by medical men as the cause of this condition.

    Now, not only is this theory of thecause of goitre unproven, but we have no reason to believe that drug iodin can beof any use to the body, although we know positively that it can and does produceconsiderable harm, even death. Its use has actually been responsible for many casesof goitre.

    The amount of iodin found in man'sbody is a mere trace. It may be a normal element of man's body; it may be a foreignelement. But one thing is certain, man's only usable supply of iodin is fruits andvegetables and these supply more iodin than he needs. Asparagus, pineapple, cabbageand green kidney beans will take care of your child's iodin needs without tryingto substitute drugs for food. Feed your child don't drug it. Putting iodin in ourcity water will someday be prohibited by law. The use of iodized salt will also end.Indeed, we will abandon the use of salt entirely.

    

    
CHAPTER XX
A HEALTHY CHILD

    There are certain leading characteristicsof a normal, healthy, well-nourished child which every parent should familiarizehimself with; for, a lack of such conditions indicates an impairment of health. Suchare the following evidences of health:

    Mental alertness, brightness.

    Cheerfulness and a contented disposition.

    Bright, sparkling, wide-open eyes.

    A good appetite.

    Absence of vomiting and regurgitationof food.

    Normal bowel movements, with normalcolor and consistency. Very little crying.

    A steady gain in weight, from healthygrowth and not from the fat-disease.

    Firm elastic flesh with springy muscles.

    Perfect, sound continuous sleep, witheyes and mouth closed. Sound sleep all night.

    Constant growth in height, and intelligence,with an increase in circumference from healthy growth.

    Symmeterical development of muscularand not fatty tissue. A clear skin with a "peaches and cream" complexion.

    An absence of emaciation.

    No evidences of pain or discomfort.

    A normal rate of development as setforth in the Chapter on Baby's Development.

    The signs of impaired health in childrenare quite numerous. There are various symptoms of disease which are so nearly universalin civilized life that ignorance calls them natural or normal. The universal fat-bloat,and the common habit of spitting are among these. Here is a list of the earlier manifestationsof impaired health in infants:

    Mental dullness, stupidity.

    Crossness, fretfulness, irritableness,and discontent.

    Dull, half-closed eyes.

    Pasty or muddy complexion.

    Lack of appetite--indifference to food.

    Vomiting and regurgitation of food.

    Hiccough.

    Flautulence with eructations of gasand with gas from the bowels, with usually a strong odor.

    Constipation.

    Diarrhea--loose watery stools, greenor other abnormal color,
with milk curds in the stools. Stools have strong odor.

    Colic.

    Colds in the head," "stuffingup," "snuffles."

    Much fretting and crying.

    A loss of weight, even emaciation.

    Fat-bloat.

    Disturbed sleep. Sleep not sound orcontinuous. Does not sleep all night.

    Grunting and crying in sleep. Hardto put to sleep at night.

    Restlessness. Hard to take care of.

    Pain and discomfort.

    Congestion (excessive redness) of cheeks.

    Mouth open while sleeping.

    Mouth breathing.

    Slow or arrested growth.

    Lack of symmetry in development.

    Soft, flabby muscles.

    Skin eruptions.

    A too slow, or perhaps too rapid, development,as set forth in the chapter on Baby's Developments.

    Purging, wetting, nose-running anddrooling attest to nature's efforts to get rid of the excess, in food salivated infants."If a child is awake and fretful, apparently demanding food every two hoursor oftener," says Dr. Tilden, "that child is sick, and should be dealtwith accordingly."

    It is the overfed infant whose inflamedstomach has a never-ceasing craving for food or something to appease the "gnawing"sensation in its stomach. It is such an infant that develops the morbid, dyspepticappetite, which always demands more food.

    Red cheeks, commonly considered a signof health, are evidences of plethora and irritation and denote a predisposition tofebrile diseases. It is a congestion of the cheeks and is no more a sign of goodhealth than are the flushed cheeks of pneumonia.

    The first signs of approaching troublesin a child are usually fretfulness and irritability. There is often an indifferenceto food and then, in a short time, a rise in temperature. There is usually a "runningnose," also. The child becomes listless and desires to lay down. From this timeon, if feeding is continued, the child grows very sick. If drugging and feeding arekept up, what might otherwise have been but a brief and slight indisposition, mayeasily become a serious disease, even ending in death.




Front Matter

Introduction
I Disease--Two Views
II The Slaughter of The Innocents
III Prenatal Care
IV Babies Should be Born in the Spring
V Baby's Growth and Development


VI The Child's Teeth
VII Teething
VIII Fat Babies
IX Mother's Milk
X Should Baby be Weaned
XI Three Year Nursing Period
XII Cows Milk
XIII Pasteurization
XIV Three Feedings a Day
XV No Starch for Infants
XVI "ReguIar" Crimes in Feeding
XVII Feeding of Infants
XVIII Baby's General Care
XIX Feeding Children from two to six years
XX A Healthy Child


XXI Undernutrition
XXII The Acute "Infectious" Diseases of Childhood

XXIII Skin Disorders
XXIV Common Disorders of Infants and Children

XXV Child Education
XXVI Corporal Punishment
XVII Vaccinia


XXVIII Serum Poisoning
XXIX Commercial Medicine

HOME PAGE    HEALTHLIBRARY CATALOG